Prostatitis is one of the most common inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system in men. This pathological process is characterized by the development of inflammation in the tissues of the prostate gland. Such a pathology in the absence of timely treatment can lead to a variety of complications. The most dangerous of them are abscess of the prostate gland, vesiculitis and epididimoorchitis.
In most cases, prostatitis is diagnosed in men aged thirty to fifty years. The prevalence of this disease is very high. More than thirty percent of the male representatives at least once in their life faced with such an inflammatory process. Depending on the nature of its development, this disease can be acute or chronic.
Causes of prostatitis
The main cause of prostatitis is the infectious flora, which penetrates the tissues of the prostate gland directly from other organs of the urogenital system or from the bloodstream from remote infectious foci. Staphylococcus, enterococci and E. coli act most frequently as pathogens of this inflammation. However, other bacteria may be affected. There are a number of predisposing factors that significantly increase the risk of developing this pathology.
Primarily, such factors include systematic or one-time, but severe hypothermia, inflammatory diseases of the urological organs and sexually transmitted diseases. In the event that a person has a pronounced decrease in the level of immune protection and chronic infectious diseases, the probability of prostatitis formation in him increases several times. Other predisposing factors include a sedentary lifestyle, excessive sexual activity or prolonged abstinence, and the presence of bad habits.
The main symptoms of prostatitis
As we have said, prostatitis can occur in acute or in chronic form. Depending on this, the accompanying clinical picture will vary somewhat. In the development of an acute pathological process, it is customary to distinguish three successive stages.
The first stage is called catarral. Symptoms of prostatitis in this stage are expressed quite moderately. A sick person pays attention to the increased urge to urinate and the appearance of pain during this process. The second stage is follicular. The pain syndrome becomes more intense and often radiates to the anus and the sacrum. There is difficulty in urinating. In some cases, urinary retention may even develop. Against this background, body temperature rises to subfebrile values. Last stage prostatitis – parenchymal. Signs of general intoxication of the body are increasing with an increase in body temperature to febrile values. Present pain has a sharp, pulsating character. Intense pain syndrome leads to difficulty defecation. Quite often, acute urinary retention is formed at this stage.
The chronic form of this disease in some cases may be the outcome of an insufficiently treated acute process. However, most often it develops primarily. A sick person complains of a slight weakness and a periodic rise in temperature to subfebrile values. Such symptoms of prostatitis as discomfort during urination and defecation are noted. There is a non-intensive pain syndrome in the perineum. In some cases, the pain can be quite pronounced. The specific point is that the pain syndrome, as a rule, increases with ejaculation or prolonged sexual abstinence.
Other symptoms of prostatitis include various dysuric disorders and sexual disorders. Dysuric disorders include frequent urge to urinate and a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder. Against the background of problems with potency, the patient experiences significant psychological discomfort, which leads to a deterioration in the quality of his life. As the pathological process progresses, sexual disorders become more pronounced and may even cause impotence.
As we have said, prostatitis often leads to quite serious complications. The outcome of acute inflammation may be an abscess of the prostate gland. With an abscess of the prostate gland, there is a rapid increase in body temperature, a sharp pain in the perineal region and an acute urinary retention.
In the chronic course of the disease there is a high risk of spreading the infectious flora to nearby organs, for example, on the testicles or seminal vesicles. Such complications can cause further development of infertility.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
Diagnosis of this disease is based on the data of the clinical picture, as well as on additional methods of research. Additional methods include digital rectal examination, bacteriological analysis of prostate secretion and ultrasound of the prostate.
For the treatment of this disease, antibiotic therapy is mandatory, which is selected depending on the sensitivity of the isolated flora. In chronic inflammatory processes, prostate massage is recommended, as well as the use of various physiotherapeutic procedures. In the event that the pathology is complicated by an abscess, it becomes necessary to perform an autopsy of the abscess.
For prophylaxis This pathological process should be protected from sexually transmitted infections, avoid hypothermia, and also lead a full sexual life. It is recommended to maintain a high level of motor activity and to give up bad habits.