Cystitis is called acute or chronic inflammatory process in the mucous membrane. The disease is a common pathology among women, while in men this diagnosis is much less common. This is due to the structural features of the male reproductive system and some characteristics of infectious agents. Usually, male cystitis is formed after 40-45 years, is a concomitant pathology of many other urological diseases. On average, it is no more than 1% of all male urinary problems.
Cystitis in men: features
In young, healthy men, cystitis as a primary, independent disease is extremely rare. In order for it to develop, complete disregard for the rules of personal hygiene, or the presence of sexually transmitted infections — usually they provoke an inflammation of the bladder — is necessary. When this occurs, there are extremely unpleasant symptoms with disorders of urination and sexual functions.
In general, cystitis in men has a secondary origin. If in women, due to a wide and short urethra, cystitis occurs as an ascending infection brought from the rectal area, cystitis in men is usually triggered by the presence of a chronic infection in the prostate, urethra or seminal vesicles, testicular appendages against the background of severely weakened immunity, hormones or cytostatic treatment. The introduction of infection from the outside (except for sexually transmitted infections), due to the long urethra, is unlikely.
Cystitis is also more often affected by men who have long suffered from urolithiasis or abnormalities in the structure of the urethra, which develop as a result of traumatic lesions, birth defects or under the influence of neoplasms. If the urethra is narrowed, it provokes stagnation of urine, creates a favorable environment for the activation of infection, which leads to the development of cystitis in men.
The main causes of cystitis in men are microbes such as staphylococcus, pseudomonas or intestinal bacilli, less often the fungi of the genus Candida. Often the causes of cystitis are infections such as trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, chlamydia. They are sexually transmitted and, in addition to cystitis, manifest as other symptoms – urethritis, prostatitis. Sometimes cystitis occurs as a complication. pyelonephritis and urolithiasis, especially in the presence of small stones and sand, constantly irritating the ureters and bladder. One of the causes of cystitis can be tuberculosis kidney, with the transition to the bladder and prostate. Today, this reason is becoming more common.
Factors such as unhealthy habits, stress, unhealthy diet and overwork contribute to the development of cystitis. They are not the causes of cystitis, but lead to a decrease in immune defense and activation of infection.
Sources of infection and causes of cystitis in conditions of reduced immunity, foci of chronic infection can become – carious cavities, sinusitis, tonsillitis. With the blood flow, germs can enter the kidneys and bladder. Sometimes, in old age, the infection develops in the bladder after catheterization, cystoscopy, prostate surgery or abdominal surgery.
Signs of cystitis
Depending on the activity and severity of the process, the signs of cystitis may vary. Acute cystitis develops quickly and abruptly, constant urging to the toilet, pain and pain during urination are formed, the volume of urine decreases to 20-30 ml. It is especially difficult for patients to start urinating due to pain, which increases by the end of the process. Sometimes this leads to incontinence of urine and its constant separation drop by drop.
The intensity of pain depends on the degree of inflammation: the pain can be moderate to unbearable, with a feeling of sand or “broken glass” along the urethra. In the period between urination, there is discomfort over the pubis, pain along the penis, inside the groin. In addition, there are also common signs of cystitis – malaise with fever up to 38.0 ° C and above, with headaches and intoxication, sweating, weakness. In severe cystitis (hemorrhagic or gangrenous), blood may be excreted in urine, mucus, pus and an unpleasant odor. The volume of urine is reduced to 500 ml per day and less.
In a chronic process, the symptoms of cystitis are less pronounced, discomfort may occur during urination, urinary incontinence, discomfort over pubis. With the exacerbation of the chronic process, cystitis is similar in course to acute.
How to treat cystitis
Naturally, the treatment of cystitis should deal exclusively with the urologist. You should not seek advice from friends or go through folk methods that advise how to treat cystitis. This is fraught with the transition of acute cystitis to chronic and complications up to infertility and problems with potency. When referring to a doctor, you will have to undergo a full examination, find out the reason and, based on it, build treatment.
In severe forms of cystitis, inpatient treatment is provided, and uncomplicated forms are treated in the clinic. How to treat cystitis, the doctor will write in detail, but the general principles of therapy are simple. This is bed rest with the transition to home with the improvement, intake of a sufficient amount of liquid, a diet with salt restriction and irritating products.
Drug treatment will be based on the results of isolation of the pathogen: these are broad-spectrum antibiotics or specific, in the presence of specific infections (candidiasis, mycoplasma, gonorrhea). Additionally used vegetable or synthetic uroseptiki, herbal medicine. Herbal preparations help to improve urine flow and relieve spasms and inflammation – phytolysin, canephron, ciston.
In parallel with the treatment of cystitis, the treatment of the underlying disease, which provoked inflammation of the bladder, is carried out. As improvement progresses, maintenance treatment and anti-relapse therapy are conducted. It includes herbal preparations, decoctions of herbs, vitamin therapy and proper nutrition, strengthening the immune system.