Causes and methods of treatment of cytomegalovirus in women
Cytomegalovirus infection is one of the types of herpes that lives in the body of most people. According to statistics, pathogenic cells are diagnosed in 70% of the inhabitants of developed countries. More than a third of patients become infected in utero and are born already carriers of the virus.
Cytomegalovirus in women has been in a latent, “sleeping” state for a long time, it begins to manifest itself only with a strong weakening of the immune system. The main sign of infection is the appearance of ulcerative formations on the face and genitals. It is the latter factor that allows the disease to progress, as it often goes unnoticed. What other symptoms can tell about the exacerbation of the disease in order to start treatment in a timely manner?
Cytomegaly is a disease that occurs in the intimate zone of girls through the fault of CMV, and its manifestations are provoked by a weakening of the body’s natural defenses. People of all ages and social groups are susceptible to infection, including newborn babies. Intrauterine infection is one of the most popular ways of transmission of infection, since pathogenic cells easily pass the placental barrier and penetrate to the fetus. Infected babies are usually born with developmental anomalies, hearing impairments, and noticeably lag behind in development.
IMPORTANT! Primary infection occurs upon contact with a carrier of the virus, and secondary pathology develops under the influence of negative internal and external factors.
In addition to intrauterine, there are the following ways of primary infection
CMV cells are found in all biological fluids of the human body, and are easily carried through the air along with saliva droplets. The most popular way of such infection is kissing.
- Direct blood transfusion.
Usually, donated blood undergoes a thorough diagnosis after the incubation period, so the risks are minimal. But in emergency cases, when the transfusion is carried out directly, CMV is able to penetrate to a healthy recipient.
- Sexual way.
Even a condom is unable to protect against pathology, since transmission is possible with oral or foreplay, and unprotected vaginal or anal contact increases the risks several times.
It is completely impossible to cure cytomegalovirus: it is embedded in the DNA of cells and remains in the body forever. It can manifest itself only under certain conditions: an acute or complicated course of another infectious or sexually transmitted disease, the development of malignant tumors, autoimmune pathologies (HIV, AIDS).
Weakens the immune system and therapy of similar ailments: taking antibiotics, hormonal drugs, chemotherapy for oncology, as well as ongoing surgical operations, including transplantation of donor organs from a carrier of the virus.
Also, signs of infection begin to appear with serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, with hypothermia, depression of the central nervous system and disturbed psycho-emotional state: fatigue, stress, depression.
Manifestations of pathology
Symptoms and treatment of cytomegalovirus in women are well known to infectious disease specialists, but the average person often takes them for manifestations of colds or allergies. The cells have an incubation period of 20 to 60 days, after which they are ready to be attacked by the immune system.
If natural protection is strong, incubation will be delayed indefinitely. The primary signs are similar to flu symptoms: fever, migraines and headaches, aching joints and muscles, nasal congestion, rhinitis, swelling of the throat, which is expressed in difficult, painful swallowing. Body temperature rises to 37.0-37.5 degrees, lymph nodes in the groin and neck increase. A distinctive symptom of CMV is rashes on the skin of the body, resembling rubella – it is they that allow doctors to assume the presence of cytomegaly and prescribe the correct tests.
IMPORTANT! If cytomegalovirus infection in women presents with symptoms in the urogenital organs, treatment will include the use of additional drugs.
The inflammatory process in the vagina, on the labia and around the anus can be detected by gynecologists during a medical examination. This is how an infection manifests itself, the primary contact with which occurred sexually. If the disease is not treated, very quickly it will lead to serious complications: erosion of the cervical canal, endometriosis, vaginosis, adnexitis and other inflammations characteristic of the field of gynecology.
Clinical picture of the disease
The first signs in women are similar to the symptoms of many genitourinary pathologies: discomfort in the intimate area, expressed by itching, burning, redness of the external genitalia. Soon, discharge appears, the color of which differs from most whites – they have a blue tint.
Simultaneously with symptoms in the groin, visual function is impaired. The mucous membrane of the eye becomes inflamed, the sharpness and clarity of the gaze is disturbed, sometimes girls complain of “snow” or a veil before their eyes.
With lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, the clinical picture is supplemented by dyspeptic manifestations: nausea, vomiting, aversion to food, indigestion, acute or pulling pains in the abdomen. If the infectious process affects the liver, hepatitis develops.
The lungs and bronchi react to pathogenic cells with a suffocating, dry cough, a temperature above 38.0 degrees, and chest pains. These are the manifestations of only the primary, acute syndrome, and with relapses characteristic of the chronic form of the disease, the symptoms are mild. Another form of clinical course is signs of mononucleosis infection. This is a high temperature (39-40 degrees), severe fever, enlarged lymph nodes, an increase in the size of the tonsils.
Since the symptoms of the disease are similar to those of many infectious diseases, it is not possible to identify it immediately. Some patients try to be treated with anti-cold drugs, others with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. This erases the clinical picture of the disease and postpones the trip to a specialist.
After a few weeks, the immune system begins to produce lymphocytes that block pathogenic cells, and the symptoms of the disease disappear on their own. The girl believes that she got rid of the disease, but it becomes chronic, and its relapses happen again and again. If you do not undergo a complete medical examination, which can determine the cause of frequent viral phenomena, it will not be possible to cope with the pathology.
After a period of incubation, the body begins to produce immunoglobulins of class G ( IgG ), indicating the presence of a virus, and M ( IgG ), characteristic of an exacerbation or primary manifestation of the disease. With cytomegalovirus IgG , antibodies can be detected using enzyme immunoassay, and the first type of immunoglobulins can be detected at any stage of the disease, and the second – only when it is activated. The entry of the virus into the active phase is indicated by an excess of the permissible norm of antibodies by four or more times.
If the ELISA did not reveal pathogenic cells, and there is a suspicion of cytomegaly , the attending physician may prescribe additional examinations. This is a blood test using the polymerase chain reaction method (the most expensive analysis), virus isolation (the disadvantage is a long sowing period – up to three weeks), cytological studies of body tissues – the most accurate analysis.
Cytomegalovirus during pregnancy
A study on CMV is mandatory when registering for pregnancy. According to medical statistics, the virus is found in every fourth pregnant woman. The danger is fraught with exacerbation of the disease in a delicate position or primary infection with it. How do exacerbations of cytomegalovirus occur in women during pregnancy?
In 85% of newborns, intrauterine developmental anomalies are observed, expressed:
- in mental retardation;
- in growth retardation;
- skin pathologies;
- violations of the organs of vision and hearing;
- anomalies of internal organs and systems.
Primary infection or relapse in the first trimester turns into a spontaneous abortion. If a woman is planning a pregnancy, she should undergo a complete medical examination to determine if she has CMV. If it is present, it will be necessary to undergo a course of treatment aimed at blocking it, and if not, all measures should be taken to prevent infection with it.
Treatment is carried out when the latent period is replaced by an exacerbation and signs of infection appear. Therapy is aimed at reducing the brightness of the manifestations of the disease, reducing the period of exacerbation and blocking pathogenic cells. Additionally, drugs are prescribed to increase the patient’s immune defenses.
Treatment with medicines is carried out only in certain cases:
- during pregnancy or its planning;
- if the girl is HIV positive;
- before surgical interventions, including transplantation of internal organs;
- if the patient suffers from kidney dysfunction or undergoes hemodialysis procedures;
- with oncotherapy ;
- when taking potent and hormonal drugs.
In other cases, they refrain from using pharmaceutical products, allowing the body’s biological defenses to cope with harmful cells on their own. The basis of drug treatment is antiviral agents ( Panavir , Neoprinosine , Acyclovir), immunoglobulins that suppress the activity of the virus, immunomodulators based on interferon, symptomatic drugs (antipyretic, antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, etc.).
Alternative therapy methods are unable to cope with harmful cells and completely rid the girl of the infection, but their use is allowed for this infection. How to treat cytomegalovirus in women with non-traditional recipes? Using the gifts of nature to increase the body’s resistance to bacteria and viruses, and reduce the manifestations of infection.
Decoctions, infusions and tinctures of such plants as wild rose, ginseng, sea buckthorn, echinacea, succession, yarrow have a general strengthening effect. Chamomile officinalis, calendula, thyme, St. John’s wort have an antiseptic effect.
Helichrysum, birch buds, juniper, wormwood and many other gifts of nature have a therapeutic effect aimed at blocking CMV. Of these, you can prepare fees or brew separately, replacing the usual tea and coffee with such decoctions. Also, infusions are indicated for local treatment: sitz baths, compresses, lotions, tampons for insertion into the vagina are prepared from them.
It is very difficult to protect yourself from a severe infection, since it is transmitted by airborne droplets, but pathogenic cells have a weak ability to infect, so women with strong immunity may not become infected. The main preventive measures are: cleanliness of sexual contacts, personal hygiene and avoidance of contact with infected people.
If infection has occurred, all measures should be taken to prevent an aggravation of the disease, and this is possible only by increasing the body’s resistance. The principle of this method is maintaining an active and healthy lifestyle, regular medical examinations and treatment of all emerging diseases in the early stages.